1780—School in area of present North Congregational Churchyard
1790—Town divided into 5 school districts
1800—Law passed enabling the taxing of inhabitants to finance schools and to nominate school committees to supervise them
1822—Selectmen instructed to fix boundaries of districts
1859—Earliest available town records indicate a school in use in Town House Area, probably across the street from KHS Schoolhouse
1871—Teacher certification required by State.
1878—State law required children ages 9-15 spend at least 12 hours a week in school or be fined $5 plus costs
1879—Free teacher tests administered by town
1895—Office of School Superintendent created
1899—Original Town House School, across from site, sold to Atlantic Shore Railway for a trolley waiting room
1899—Present Town House School built as one room schoolhouse
1910—Small primary room for recitation added to the back
1915—School flags compulsory
1916—Another small addition was made and stoves jacketed
1918—State law requires towns of Maine to organize into School Unions. Kennebunkport and Kennebunk formed Union #3
1918—Foundation of Town House School graded and filled
1919—Dividing wall in Town House School pushed back to make more room for 27 primary students
1920—Town House School enlarged 6 feet at rear of building, 2 windows added, chimney moved and rebuilt, running water and drinking fountain added, and grading of grounds
1922—Chemical toilet installed at Town House School
1923—Interior of school decorated
1928—Exterior of Town House School painted.
1933—The Towns of Wells and North Berwick join School Union #3 (they stay in the union until 1950)
1935—Electric lights and a new jacketed stove installed at the Town House School
1950—Town House School closed when consolidated school opened
On November 6th, 1951, nineteen people met at the home of Mr. and Mrs. John Eckler of Kennebunkport. Their purpose—”to see if a sufficient number of people would be interested in founding a society to preserve the history of Kennebunkport and memorabilia pertaining to that history”. The foundation laid that night led to the organization of The Kennebunkport Historical Society in March of 1952 with 239 Charter Members. During the first decade great advances were made in locating the sites of former buildings and points of history and in marking and tracing the origins of old houses now standing.
1952—Kennebunkport Historical Society organized
1953—First publication “The Final Days of Shipbuilding on the Kennebunk” by Charles S. Morgan.
1953—”Open House Days” celebrate the town’s 300th anniversary
1955—The Town House School was purchased for $1500 and became the Society headquarters.
Bartholomew Gosnold: First European to “smell the earth” at Maine’s southern coast. (Or was he?)
Bartholomew Gosnold was born in 1572 with a silver spoon in his mouth and a passion for adventure in his heart. His parents, Anthony and Dorothy (Bacon) Gosnold, were both of notable families in England during the reign of the “Virgin Queen”, Elizabeth I. Anthony Gosnold had a royal descent from King Edward III of England. Bartholomew’s mother was of the same gene pool that produced Lord Francis Bacon. In fact, the branches of the Bacon and Gosnold trees crossed more than once.
Young Bartholomew was trained as a lawyer, attending Cambridge University and Middle Temple. While at school he was inspired by a lecture given by the Geographer of the day, Richard Hakluyt, whose The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation was published in 1600. Gosnold was so inspired, in fact, that he lost all interest in practicing law. When Sir Walter Raleigh invited him on a voyage to the new world, he eagerly agreed. The voyage failed to meet its mission but there was no turning back for Batholomew. He continued to sail as a privateer chasing Spaniards and dreams of glory across the Atlantic.
Gentlemen explorers like Raleigh and Gosnold did not venture forth to uncharted territory to escape religious persecution. Nor were they wholly altruistic in their efforts on behalf of England. They were interested in money, power and immortality; real people with still familiar, human motivations.
In 1602, Raleigh was falling out of favor in England. His failure with the lost colony of Roanoke had offended many of his supporters and the Queen. Queen Elizabeth encouraged adventurers to search for a Northwest Passage. This presented a loophole to Raleigh’s 1584 patent to colonize North America. Bartholomew Gosnold, at just 30 years of age, seized this entrepreneurial opportunity to sail stealthily through that loophole.
Plans for a voyage were hastily made. It would be financed by William Shakespeare’s patron, the Earl of Southhampton. The mission was meant to discover a route to America on a more northerly tract as allowed by the Queen’s decree but there was a secondary mission. Gosnold intended to establish a small colony in the “North part of Virginia”.
The barque Concord departed from Falmouth, England on March 26, 1602 with a crew of 8 and 23 “Gentleman Discoverers”, some of whom intended to remain in the new world. The Concord was in poor condition and dangerously small for such a voyage but in spite of some contrary winds, she made the trip in a record breaking 49 days. Gosnold and his crew could “smell the land” at Cape Porpoise by May 14.
Two of the gentlemen along for the voyage, Gabriel Archer and John Brereton, journaled their impressions of the trip to the “North part of Virginia”. These firsthand accounts have been invaluable historical research sources ever since. Both diarists described an encounter with Native Americans at “Savage Rock”, calculated by scholars to be near Cape Neddick. A Basque Shallop, with sails and oars, carrying 8 natives, boldly approached the Concord. Archer writes of the encounter,
“One that seemed to be their commander wore a waistcoat of a black wool, a pair of breeches, cloth stockings, shoes, hat and band, one or two more had also a few things made by some Christians; these with a piece of chalk described the coast thereabouts, and could name Placentia of Newfoundland; they spoke divers Christian words, and seemed to understand much more than we, for want of language could comprehend.”
Gosnold’s company proceeded southward with confidence relying on the chalk map for navigation. They established a temporary settlement at what is now known as the Island of Cuttyhunk. Gosnold called it Elizabeth Island in honor of Queen Elizabeth whose edict had made his voyage legal. Marthas Vinyard was named after Gosnold’s recently deceased infant daughter. He named Cape Cod for the abundance of fish that virtually “pestered” the Ship. The naming of the area seems at first glance to be sentimental but it was probably more territorial than sentimental. Gosnold was naming territory that was part of Sir Walter Raleigh’s patent. Meanwhile, Raleigh was back in England worrying about his lost colony of Roanoke and totally ignorant of Gosnold’s voyage.
Gosnold traded with the Natives in Raleigh’s patent for sassafras and supplies. Sassafras was considered the new wonder drug in Europe. Profits from a good sized cargo would be considerable as the Americas were the only available source of the plant. When the Concord’s hold was full the “Gentlemen Adventurers” could not agree upon a fair division of profits or of supplies between the colonists and those returning to England. In fear of being unfairly compensated or worse, of suffering the same fate as the lost Roanoke colonists, all those who had intended to remain at Cuttyhunk could not be persuaded to stay. The entire company returned to England with the undivided provisions.
The return trip to England was accomplished in only 37 days with the help of prevailing winds and the fact that they had cut their Shallop loose to lighten the load on the Concord. This was a common practice and may explain how the Native Americans at Cape Neddick came to be in possession of such a boat.
Once Bartholomew Gosnold returned to England, damage control with Sir Walter Raleigh commenced. Raleigh discovered the patent infringement as soon as the sassafras market was flooded by Gosnold’s cargo. He wrote a letter to the Queen’s Principal Secretary demanding that Gosnold’s portion of the cargo be seized and given to him. Brereton’s account of the trip was then “edited” to include a glowing dedication to Raleigh. This account was published and at once became a bestseller. Archer’s account would not be published until 1625.
Bartholomew Gosnold had not established the first permanent English settlement in New England as was his intention but his bold ambitions had changed the course of our history. Had his voyage in 1602 not inspired Martin Pring to make a proper discovery of the Kennebunk River in 1603, French explorer Samuel de Champlain would be credited for discovering our coast in 1604.
Read Gabriel Archer’s account of the 1602 voyage here.
Read John Brereton’s account of the 1602 voyage here.
Alarmed by the increase in annual maintenance costs for lighthouses and associated dwellings, the Treasury Department appointed Civil Engineer, I.W.P Lewis to conduct a survey of the condition of the lighthouses on the coasts of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. The Treasury Department presented a report on the progress of the survey to date to Congress on February 25, 1843. Mr. Lewis had concluded that the skyrocketing maintenance cost indicated some defect in the customary system of building lighthouses and associated dwellings. He traveled to all the lighthouses along the coast and took reports from the various lighthouse Keepers. Below is the report for Cape Porpoise, Maine. Goat Island Lighthouse keeper, Thatcher Hutchins was interviewed August 15, 1842. He reported the buildings to be in a deplorable state of disrepair less than a decade after they were first erected.
Kennebunk Port High School was built on Elm St in 1891 at the location of the old Spring Hotel, which had burned in the 1887 Skating Rink Fire. The high school building also housed a grammar school. In 1946, the town voted to pay tuition to Wells and Kennebunk High Schools rather than continue to maintain the Elm St school. The high school students moved out in 1947 and for 6 years the building served as a consolidated 8th grade until Consolidated School was built in 1953. The 1891 building on Elm St was finally torn down to make way for the Town Office in 1959.
When North St/Maine St was laid out in 1755 there was already a bridge over Perkins Tide Mill Creek. It was located just above the mill dam and was then known as the ‘Long Creek Bridge’.
From Arundel Town Book I March 18, 1755 (with spelling corrections made for readability)
“Voted the road from Goff’s Mill so-called to Harding’s Ferry as it is laid out : beg. at the lane that leads from ye Town Road to the Widow Merrill’s house and so down as the road now goes to the dividing line between lots that were formerly Esq. Hill’s lots and Col. Storer’s then S.E. and by E. to Mr. Rhodes field or house and from said Rhodes to the first brook where the road crosses the brook and from said brook on a S. course 42 R to head of Bass Cove and so crossing cove by an old hemlock tree over to a pine stump then S.W. and by S. 100R and then S.W. to Long Creek Bridge and from said bridge along by Mr. Eliphalet Perkins fence to the N.E. end of said fence then on a direct course along by and near ye N.E. corner of the little house where Mr. Shackford Sr. lived and from thence to the back side of Gideon Walker’s barn and so on to Saml Perkins land then down as the old road goes to the old mill brook so-called and 7 R over said brook as the road now is and from there on a S.W. course 32 R to the old road then as the old road goes to the head of Harding’s Cove so on the lower road or way. Road to be 2 Rods wide.”
When that road was expanded and straightened in 1805 a map of the original course and proposed changes was filed with the York County Court of Sessions. See full 1805 Sessions Record below.
Narrative from York County Court of General Session Records
Bartholomew Gosnold and his crew were the first European explorers to describe the coast of Southern Maine in 1602 but Indians they met near Cape Neddick had clearly encountered Basque fishermen before that date.
Gosnold, 8 crewmembers and 23 “Gentleman Discoverers,” some of whom were intending to remain in the new world, departed from Falmouth, England on March 26, 1602. They sailed on board the Concord, a barque reportedly in poor condition and dangerously small for such a voyage yet they made the trip in 49 days. Cape Porpoise was the first land they laid eyes on, at 6 am on May 14, 1602. Gosnold referred to it as North Land.
Two diarists aboard the Concord on that voyage, Gabriel Archer and John Brereton, described an encounter with Native Americans at “Savage Rock”, calculated by scholars to be near Cape Neddick. At around noontime that same day, the Concord was boldly approached by a Basque Shallop, with sails and oars, carrying 8 natives.
Archer wrote of the encounter, “One that seemed to be their commander wore a waistcoat of a black wool, a pair of breeches, cloth stockings, shoes, hat and band, one or two more had also a few things made by some Christians; these with a piece of chalk described the coast thereabouts, and could name Placentia of Newfoundland; they spoke divers Christian words, and seemed to understand much more than we, for want of language could comprehend.”
John Brereton’s journal of the voyage, ‘Briefe and True Relation of the Discoverie of the North Part of Virginia in 1602′, was published in England later that year. The following pages of Brereton’s journal relate to May 14, 1602.